Q: Why is the Queen referred to as the second Elizabeth? Her mother was also Queen Elizabeth, so shouldn’t this Queen be Elizabeth III?
A: No. The “numbering” of a monarch applies to those who are regnant (reigning as the sovereign). The current Queen is regnant, meaning that it was through her birthright – not her marriage – that she became Queen. It was the same situation for Queen Elizabeth I. The Queen Mother, however, held the title of Queen through her marriage to a king, making her a consort to the monarch, not a monarch herself.
Q: How does one address a peer or member of the Royal Family?
A: There are a number of ways. It depends on whether you are addressing someone socially or by correspondence. According to Debrett’s, when addressing the Queen, it is laid out like this:
On the envelope, for formal and state documents:
“The Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty” otherwise “Her Majesty The Queen”.
“Madam,” or “May it please your Majesty”.
“I have the honour to remain Madam, Your Majesty’s most humble and obedient servant”.
“Your Majesty”, and thenceforward as “Ma’am”.
For Princes & Princesses:
On the envelope:
(i) the son of a Sovereign “His Royal Highness The Prince [Charles]“;
(ii) other Princes “His Royal Highness Prince [Michael of Kent]“;
(iii) Duke “His Royal Highness The Duke of [Gloucester]“. Commencement, “Sir”.
“I have the honour to be, Sir, Your Royal Highness’s most humble and obedient servant”.
Personal address: “Your Royal Highness”, and thenceforward as “Sir”.
Thanks to royal.gov.uk
Q: What are the jeweled pictures pinned to Her Majesty’s shoulder?
A: The jeweled portraits are known as Royal Family Orders, which are given by the sovereign to female members of the Royal Family. The badge features a portrait of the Monarch, surrounded by diamonds with the royal cypher on the back side. It is attached to a silk bow, the color of which varies from sovereign to sovereign. (Light blue – George V; pink – George VI; yellow – The Queen.) The Queen wears the Family Orders of her father George VI and her grandfather George V, while her family members wear her order only.